Ear training question
How do you know that the note which have been played is a major minor perfect etc
As far as hearing those intervals, that takes practice. There's an ear training practice tool on this site here:
If you're just trying to understand what the difference is between these different interval types then check out this article on intervals:
An simple way to get started with recognizing intervals by ear is to consider the first note of an interval as the root of a major scale. Then listen to the second note decide what scale degree that second note would be; 1st, 2nd, 3rd, etc. If the second note is a 4rd or 5th then it's a perfect interval. If it's any other scale degree then it would be a major interval.
That covers major and perfect intervals. Once you have them under your belt the minor intervals should come easier since they are just a half step lowered versions of their major counterparts.
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